Prevalence and Pattern of Electrolyte Imbalance in Hypertensives Admitted in Nigerian Teaching Hospitals


  • Akinsanya Daniel Olusegun-Joseph College of Medicine, University of Lagos. Lagos University Teaching Hospital Lagos.
  • Bolanle O Okunowo Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Adeseye A Akintunde Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) & LAUTECH Teaching Hospital.
  • Kamilu M Karaye Bayero University & Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria.



Hospitalized hypertensive, electrolyte imbalances, Potassium, Sodium, bicarbonate, Chloride.



Hypertension not only predispose to cardiovascular diseases, it is also associated with electrolyte imbalances (EIs), which in most cases subtly impacts on morbidity and mortality. We aimed to determine the prevalence and pattern of EI in hospitalized hypertensives from three teaching hospitals in Nigeria.


This was a retrospective study of hypertensive patients who were admitted in three teaching hospitals in the cities of Lagos, Kano and Ogbomosho, Nigeria. Medical records and serum electrolyte results done at the point of admission were retrieved and analyzed.


159 admitted hypertensive patients who had analysis of their electrolytes were recruited of which 106 (66.7%) were males, while 53(33.3%) were females. Majority of patients (138 {86.8%}) had at least one EI, while only 21 (13.2%) had normal electrolytes.  39(24.5%) patients had more than two EIs; 55(34.6%) had two EIs, while 44(27.7%) had one EI. The commonest electrolyte abnormality was hyponatremia seen in 63 (39.6%) patients, followed by hypokalemia, reduced bicarbonate and hypochloremia found in 58 (36.5%), 53(33.3%), and 40 (25.2%) respectively.

EI was more prevalent among females (96.2% vs 82.1% in males; p=0.002), patients who had tachycardia (94.3% vs 80.9% of patients without tachycardia; p=0.042) and those with elevated diastolic blood pressure DBP (p=0.034).


EIs are very common among hospitalized hypertensive patients, with most of them having multiple derangements. EI was more prevalent in females, patients with tachycardia and elevated (DBP).

Key words: Hospitalized hypertensive, electrolyte imbalances, Potassium, Sodium, bicarbonate, Chloride.

Author Biographies

Akinsanya Daniel Olusegun-Joseph, College of Medicine, University of Lagos. Lagos University Teaching Hospital Lagos.

Cardiology Unit

Department of Medicne

Consultant Cardiologist

Bolanle O Okunowo, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

Endocrine unit

Department of Medicine


Adeseye A Akintunde, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) & LAUTECH Teaching Hospital.

Cardiology unit

Department of Medicine



Kamilu M Karaye, Bayero University & Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria.

Cardiology unit

Department of Medicine

Prof, Consultant Cardiologist


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