Pandemic of Fear or What Statistics Hide: Patients with Cardiovascular Disease are at Increased Risk During COVID-19
Keywords:COVID-19, pandemic, statistics, cardiovascular diseases, mortality
AbstractInsufficient statistical information on the structure of mortality in the era of the pandemic is disclosed in this article. It analyzes the statistics and the causes of death during the COVID-19 pandemic from a new coronavirus infection and cardiovascular disease. Actual international data on a decrease in the hospitalization rate of patients with acute coronary syndrome are presented. A comparative analysis of statistics from European countries and Russia shows that cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in populations, and patients with cardiovascular diseases are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality during the COVID pandemic.
Bilbul M, Paparone P, Kim AM, et al. Psychopharmacology of COVID-19. Psychosomatics. 2020 May 18. Online ahead of print. doi: 10.1016/j.psym.2020.05.006
Hill A, Wang J, Levi J, et al. Minimum costs to manufacture new treatments for COVID-19. J Virus Erad. 2020 Apr 30;6(2):61-69.
Doggrell SA. Does lopinavir measure up in the treatment of COVID-19? Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2020 Jun 12;1-4. Online ahead of print. doi:10.1080/13543784.2020.1777277
Tchesnokov EP, Feng JY, Porter DP, et al. Mechanism of Inhibition of Ebola Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase by Remdesivir. Viruses. 2019;11(4):326. doi:10.3390/v11040326
Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Mar 20;105949. Online ahead of print. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949.
Gaisenok O.V. Drug interactions and side effects of co-administration of chloroquine / hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin: to the question of rational pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19 using antimalarial drugs. Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology. 2020;16(3):481-486. doi: 10.20996/1819-6446-2020-06-08
Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Cardona-Ospina JA, Gutiérrez-Ocampo E, et al; Latin American Network of Coronavirus Disease 2019-COVID-19 Research (LANCOVID-19). Electronic address: https://www.lancovid.org. Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 Mar-Apr;34:101623. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101623
Lodigiani C, Iapichino G, Carenzo L, et al; Humanitas COVID-19 Task Force. Venous and arterial thromboembolic complications in COVID-19 patients admitted to an academic hospital in Milan, Italy. Thromb Res. 2020 Jul;191:9-14. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2020.04.024.
Du RH, Liang LR, Yang CQ, et al. Predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2: a prospective cohort study. Eur Respir J. 2020 May 7;55(5):2000524. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00524-2020
Bhimraj A, Morgan RL, Shumaker AH, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines on the Treatment and Management of Patients with COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 27:ciaa478. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa478. Epub ahead of print.
Varga Z, Flammer AJ, Steiger P, et al. Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19. Lancet. 2020 May 2;395(10234):1417-1418 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30937-5
European Cardiovascular Disease Statistics (2012) https://www.escardio.org/The-ESC/What-we-do/Initiatives/EuroHeart/2012-European-Cardiovascular-Disease-Statistics-Visuals [Accessed on 03.06.2020]
COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html [Accessed on 03.07.2020]
Global Coronavirus Statistics https://epidemic-stats.com/ [Accessed on 03.07.2020]
MEDVESTNIK: Russian doctor portal. Ministry of Health proposes WHO to change coding of deaths from COVID (Russian; author’s translation) https://medvestnik.ru/content/news/Minzdrav-predlojit-VOZ-izmenit-poryadok-kodirovaniya-smertei-ot-COVID-19.html [Accessed on 03.06.2020]
Wichmann D, Sperhake JP, Lütgehetmann M, et al. Autopsy Findings and Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With COVID-19. Ann Intern Med. 2020 May 6:M20-2003. doi: 10.7326/M20-2003
Edler C, Schröder AS, Aepfelbacher M, et al. Dying with SARS-CoV-2 infection-an autopsy study of the first consecutive 80 cases in Hamburg, Germany. Int J Legal Med. 2020 Jun 4:1–10. doi: 10.1007/s00414-020-02317-w. Epub ahead of print.
Guidelines for coding and selection of the underlying state in morbidity statistics and the initial cause in mortality statistics associated with COVID-19. Moscow, 27.05.2020. – 24p. (Russian; author’s translation) https://static-1.rosminzdrav.ru/system/attachments/attaches/000/050/527/original/27052020_MR_STAT_1.pdf [Accessed on 03.06.2020]
Ferrari R, Maggioni AP, Tavazzi L, et al. The battle against COVID-19: mortality in Italy. Eur Heart J. 2020 Jun 7;41(22):2050-2052. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa326.
About new coronavirus infectious disease confirmed on cruise ship under quarantine at Yokohama Port (published on February 26) (Japanise; author’s translation) www.mhlw.go.jp [Accessed on 03.06.2020]
Russell TW, Hellewell J, Jarvis CI, et al. Estimating the infection and case fatality ratio for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) using age-adjusted data from the outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship, February 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020 Mar;25(12):2000256 doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.12.2000256
Fauci AS, Lane HC, Redfield RR. Covid-19 - Navigating the Uncharted. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(13):1268-1269. doi:10.1056/NEJMe2002387
MEDVESTNIK: Russian doctor portal. The chief cardiologist said a dramatic decrease in hospitalizations with a heart attack (Russian; author’s translation) https://medvestnik.ru/content/news/Glavnyi-kardiolog-zayavil-o-dramaticheskom-snijenii- gospitalizacii-s-infarktom.html?utm_source=Итоговая+база_МВ&utm_campaign=8b21cb54cb-letternews_2020.06.04&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_e42625fddb-8b21cb54cb-55207803 [Accessed on 03.06.2020]
De Rosa S, Spaccarotella C, Basso C, et al; Società Italiana di Cardiologia and the CCU Academy investigators group. Reduction of hospitalizations for myocardial infarction in Italy in the COVID-19 era. Eur Heart J. 2020 Jun 7;41(22):2083-2088. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa409
European Society of Cardiology. STEMI admissions during COVID-19. An ESC survey on ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) admissions during the pandemic https://www.escardio.org/Education/COVID-19-and-Cardiology/esc-survey-on-stemi-admissions-during-covid-19?utm_medium=Email&utm_source=ESC&utm_campaign=ESC+-+Newsletter+-+week+23+-+3+June [Accessed on 03.06.2020]
Gaisenok O.V., Alexandrova A.A., Savina N.M. Prevalence of obesity and its relationship with cardiovascular risk according to data of population screening programs. Social aspects of population health [serial online] 2020; 66(2):1. doi: 10.21045/2071-5021-2020-66-2-1.
Phung DT, Wang Z, Rutherford S, et al. Body mass index and risk of pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2013 Oct;14(10):839-57. doi: 10.1111/obr.12055
Kassir R. Risk of COVID-19 for patients with obesity. Obes Rev. 2020 Jun;21(6):e13034. doi: 10.1111/obr.13034
Ashraf S, Ilyas S, Alraies MC. Acute coronary syndrome in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Eur Heart J. 2020 Jun 7;41(22):2089-2091. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa454
World Health Organization. Italy. Statistics https://www.who.int/countries/ita/en/ [Accessed on 03.06.2020]
The Demographic Yearbook of Russia 2019 https://gks.ru/bgd/regl/B19_16/Main.htm [Accessed on 03.06.2020]
Shewan LG, Coats AJS, Henein MY. Authors’ Responsibilities and Ethical Publishing. International Cardiovascular Forum Journal 2018;13:3-4, DOI: 10.17987/icfj.v13i0.525
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. The authors will retain copyright under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).