An Unexpected Case of Isolated Left Ventricular Apical Hypoplasia in an Asymptomatic Patient
Keywords:Isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia, Cardiac MRI, Congenital, Rare, Asymptomatic
Isolated left ventricular (LV) apical hypoplasia is a rare type of congenital heart disease. It is often asymptomatic in childhood but may lead to complications later on in life. The proposed mechanism is inadequate LV dilatation during development of the primitive ventricle, resulting in a spherical LV. To our knowledge, we describe for the first time a case of isolated LV apical hypoplasia in an asymptomatic patient, diagnosed on investigation of an abnormal 12-lead resting electrocardiogram (ECG).
Starmer G, Younge JF, Stewart P. Multimodality imaging of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. Eur Heart J. 2012, 33(5):675. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehr252.
Irving C, Chaudhuri M. Fatal presentation of congenital isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2009, 35(2) p. 368–369. doi:10.1016/j.ejcts.2008.10.039
Fernandez-Valls M, Srichai MB, Stallman AE, White RD. Isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia: a new congenital anomaly described with cardiac tomography. Heart. 2004, 90(5), p. 552–555. doi: 10.1136/hrt.2003.010637
Patrianakos AP, Protonotaries N, Zacharaki A, Tsatsopoulou A, Parthenakis FI, Vardas PE. Isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia: a newly recognized unclassified cardiomyopathy. J Am Soc Echocardiogram. 2010, 23(12):1336. doi:10.1016/j.echo.2010.05.014.
Galvao C, Silva P, Magalhaes S, Bettencourt N, Themudo R. Isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. Eur Heart J. - Cardiovascular Imaging. 2014, 15(12), p. 1399. doi:10.1093/ehjci/jeu149
Alizadeh SZ, Vojdanparast M, Rezaeian N, Seifi A, Omidvar Tehrani S, Nezafati P. Left ventricular apical hypoplasia: Case report on cardiomyopathy and a history of sudden cardiac death. ARYA Atheroscler. 2016, 12(1), p. 50-4
Orsbonre C, Schmitt M. Isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia, characterized by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Heart J. 2014, 35(46), p. 3303. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu316
Baroni M, Pedrotti P, Nava S, Giannattasio C, Roghi A. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of left ventricular apical hypoplasia in two complex congenital clinical syndromes. Circa J. 2014, 78(6), p.1507-9. doi:10.1253/circj.cj-13-1555
Skidan VI, Kuznetsova T, Pavlyukova EN, Nartsissova GP. Isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia with myocardial non-compaction: a case report. Eur Heart J Case Rep. 2019, 31;4(1):1-6. doi: 10.1093/ehjcr/ytz215
Braga C, Silva P, Magalhaes S, Bettencourt N, Themudo R. Isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014, 15(12), p. 1399. doi:10.1093/ehjci/jeu149
Shewan LG, Coats AJS, Henein MY. Authors’ Responsibilities and Ethical Publishing. International Cardiovascular Forum Journal. 2018,13:3-4. doi:10.17987/icfj.v13i0.525
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. The authors will retain copyright under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).