Coronary Calcification and Male Gender Predict Significant Stenosis in Symptomatic Patients in Northern and Southern Europe and the USA: A Euro-CCAD Study


  • Ying Zhao Capital Medical University
  • Rachel Nicoll
  • Axel Diederichsen
  • Hans Mickley
  • Kristian Ovrehus
  • Jose Zamorano
  • Benjamin Dubourg
  • Axel Schmermund
  • Erica Maffei
  • Filippo Cademartiri
  • Matt Budoff
  • Urban Wiklund
  • Michael Y Henein



Stenosis, coronary artery calcification, risk factors, geographical region


Background and Aims: Significant stenosis is the principal cause of stable angina but its predictors and their variation by geographical region are unclear.

Methods and Results: From the European Calcific Coronary Artery Disease (Euro-CCAD) cohort, we retrospectively investigated 5515 symptomatic patients from northern Europe (Denmark, France, Germany), southern Europe (Italy, Spain) and USA. All had conventional cardiovascular risk factor assessment, angiography and CT scanning for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. There were differences in the patient characteristics between the groups, with the USA patients being younger and having more diet and lifestyle-related risk factors, although hypertension may have been better controlled than in Europe. USA patients had a two-fold increase in prevalence of significant stenosis and a three-fold increase in median CAC score. In all three groups, the log CAC score proved to be the strongest predictor of >50% stenosis followed by male gender. In the USA group, there were no additional independently predictive risk factors, although in northern Europe obesity, hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolaemia remained predictive, with all risk factors other than hypertension proving to be predictive in the southern Europe group. Without the CAC score as a variable, male gender followed by diabetes were the most important predictors in all three regions, with hypertension also proving predictive in northern Europe.

Conclusion:  In symptomatic patients, the CAC score and male gender were the two most important predictors of significant stenosis in symptomatic patients in northern and southern Europe and the USA.

Author Biography

Ying Zhao, Capital Medical University

Ultrasound Department


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Original Article