International Cardiovascular Forum Journal

The International Cardiovascular Forum Journal is an international peer-reviewed journal dedicated to publishing high quality reports, studies, trials, investigations and theories covering all aspects of cardiovascular and cardiometabolic health and disease.

The International Cardiovascular Forum Journal is a proud member of COPE, the Committee on Publication Ethics (  

The Journal is indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (, in Google Scholar and Index Copernicus (

It  is also listed in the Open Archives Registry    (, ISI (International Scientific Indexing,, SIS (Scientific Indexing Services,, the ROAD Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources (, by Crossref ( by and in Publons ( in Web of Science (WOS) has been applied for.

Published by Barcaray International Publishing (Dubai, Hong Kong, London), C/0 T&F Group, The Maze Tower, Sheikh Zayed Road, PO Box 58531,  Dubai, United Arab Emirates (


ISSN 2409-3424 (online) 2410-2636 (Print)

Afilliated with:  




Journal Homepage Image

ICFJ covers a broad area of interest from molecules, 
to clinical practice to populations including: 

  • Coronary artery disease
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Valve disease
  • Heart failure
  • Arrhythmias
  • Congenital heart diseases
  • Cardiovascular imaging (echo, CMR, PET, CT and
    nuclear cardiology)
  • Genetic cardiac disease
  • Vascular diseases
  • Systemic disease with cardio-metabolic impact
  • Gene, Cell and regenerative therapies
  • Clinical trials
  • Epidemiology
  • Socio-economic and health services research
  • Environmental and nutritional cardiovascular disease
  • Biotechnology and devices
  • Mathematical modeling
  • Computers, IT and tele-solutions
  • and opinion pieces and controversies



Editorial Board

Svend Aakhus (Norway)

Gani Bajraktari (Kosovo)

Lennart Bergfeldt (Sweden)

Matteo Cameli (Italy)

John Chapman (France)

Ragnar Danielsen (Iceland)

Constantinos Davos (Greece)

Frank Dini (Italy)

Xin Du (China)

Raimund Erbel (Germany)

Carmen Ginghina (Romania)

Pascal Gueret (France)

Christian Hassager (Denmark)

Charles Jazra (Lebanon)

Xu Yu Jin (UK)

Juan Carlos Kaski (UK)

Joseph Kisslo (USA)

Juhani Knuuti (Finland)

Lars H Lindholm (Sweden)

Changsheng Ma (China)


Gerald Maurer (Austria)

William McKenna (UK)

Sergio Mondillo (Italy)

Joseph Moutiris (Cyprus)

Sherif Nagueh (USA)

Rachel Nicoll (UK)

Mitsuru Ohishi (Japan)

Basil Okeahialam (Nigeria)

Ali Oto (Turkey)

John Pepper (UK)

Eugenio Picano (Italy)

Fausto Pinto (Portugal)

Axel Schmermund (Germany)

Otto Smiseth (Norway)

Chuwa Tei (Japan)

Anders Waldenström (Sweden)

Olov Wiklund (Sweden)

Robert Xuereb (Malta)

Fuquan Yang (China)

Pepe Zamorano (Spain)

Joint Editors-in-Chief: 

Professor Michael Henein, Umea  


Professor Andrew Coats, Monash



Associate Editors

Reinadlo Bulgarelli Bestetti (Ribeirão Preto, Brazil)

Rafaelle Bugiardini (Bologna, Italy)

L. Ceri Davies (London, UK)

Jan Engvall (Linköping, Sweden)

Abdel José Fuenmayor (Merida, Venezuela)

Per Lindqvist (Stockholm, Sweden)

Paolo Emilio Puddu (Rome, Italy)

Stefan Söderberg (Umeå, Sweden)

Xander Wehrens (Houston, USA)

Reidar Winter (Stockholm, Sweden)




Volume 20 Published

We are pleased to announce that Volume 20 (2020) has been published on-line.  
Posted: 2020-08-07 More...

Volume 15 Published

We are pleased to announce that today Volume 15 (2018) has been published on-line.  
Posted: 2019-03-12

Volume 14 Published

We are pleased to announce that today Volume 14 (2018) has been published on-line.  
Posted: 2019-02-06 More...
More Announcements...

Vol 20 (2020)

Full Issue

View or download the full issue Complete Volume 20

Table of Contents


Robert Skalik


Shahzar Khan, Hasnain Jan, Shah Faisal, Ayyaz Khan, Rashida Ilyas, Khadija Bibi, Sadeeq ur Rehman
Abdullah Abdullah, Shah Faisal, Hasnain Jan, Rimsha Zainab, Ayyaz Khan, Anees ur Rahman, Baseerat Bibi, Hania Ishaq
Shah Faisal, Shahzar Khan, Muhammad Ajmal, Hasnain Jan, Muhammad Taj Akbar, Rashida Ilyas, Khadija Bibi, Sadeeq ur Rehman

Original Article

Yong Ji, Amar Desai, Gary E. Fraser, Deepika Narasimha, Islam Abudayyeh, Kenneth R. Jutzy, Anthony A. Hilliard
Kamilu Musa Karaye, Idris Y Mohammed, Hadiza Sa'idu, Naser A Ishaq, Suleiman A Balarabe, Jamilu Tukur, Tewogbade Adedeji, Olufemiwa N Makinde, Rasaaq A Adebayo

Letters to the Editor

Rachel Anne Xuereb, Sara Xuereb, Tiziana Felice, Mariosa Xuereb, Alex Borg
Reiner Buchhorn, Christoph Baumann, Christian Willaschek
Christian Brooks, Heather Cooke